Built Environment
 Design & Control
Journal Papers
*Corresponding author
2020
44. Xue, J., You, R., Liu, W., Chen, C., and Lai, D. Applications of local climate zone (LCZ) classification scheme to improve urban sustainability. Sustainability, 2020, 12(19), 8083.
43. Liu, W., van Hooff, T., An, Y., Hu, S., and Chen, C. Modeling transient particle transport in transient indoor airflow by fast fluid dynamics with the Markov chain method. Building and Environment, 186, 2020, 107323.
42. Sun, J., Liu, W., Long, Z., Zhang, H., and Pan, W. Transmission and exposure of kitchen particles: a case study in an apartment. Indoor and Built Environment, 2020, doi: 10.1177/1420326X20942579.
41. Chen, S., Zhu, Y., Chen, Y., and Liu, W.* Usage strategy of phase change materials in plastic greenhouses, in hot summer and cold winter climate. Applied Energy, 227, 2020, 115416.
40. Lai, D., Lian, Z., Liu, W., Guo, C., Liu, W., Liu, K., and Chen, Q. A comprehensive review of thermal comfort studies in urban open spaces. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140092.
39. Liu, K., Nie, T., Liu, W., Liu, Y., and Lai, D. A machine learning approach to predict outdoor thermal comfort using local skin temperatures. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2020.102216.
2019
38. Lei, L., Chen, W., Xue, Y., and Liu, W.* A comprehensive evaluation method for indoor air quality of buildings based on rough sets and a wavelet neural network. Building and Environment, 162, 2019, 160296, doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106296.
37. Xue, Y., Liu, W.*, Wang, Q., and Bu, F. Development of an integrated approach for the inverse design of built environment by a fast fluid dynamicsbased generic algorithm. Building and Environment, 160, 2019, 106205, doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106205.
36. Liu, W., You, R., and Chen, C. Modeling transient particle transport by fast fluid dynamics with the Markov chain method. Building Simulation, 2019, 12: 881889.
35. Wei, Y., Liu, W., Xue, Y., Zhai, Z., Chen, Q., and Zhang, T. Inverse design of aircraft cabin ventilation by integrating three methods. Building and Environment, 2019, 150: 3343.
2018
34. Zhao, X., Liu, W.*, Lai, D., and Chen, Q. Optimal design of an indoor environment by the CFDbased adjoint method with areaconstrained topology and cluster analysis. Building and Environment, 2018, 138: 171180.
33. Lai, D., Chen, C., Liu, W., Shi, Y., and Chen, C. An ordered probability model for predicting outdoor thermal comfort. Energy and Buildings, 2018, 168: 261271.
32. Liu, W., Zhao, X., and Chen, Q. A novel method for measuring air infiltration rate in buildings. Energy and Buildings, 2018, 168: 309318.
31. Chen, C., Zhao, B., Lai, D., and Liu, W. A simple method for differentiating direct and indirect exposure to exhaled contaminants in mechanically ventilated rooms. Building Simulation, 2018, 11(5): 10391051.
30. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. Development of coarse grid generation methods for fast fluid dynamics in simulating indoor airflow. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2018, 11(4): 470484.
2017
29. Liu, W., You, R., Zhang, Jie., and Chen, Q. Development of a fast fluid dynamicsbased adjoint method for the inverse design of indoor environments. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2017, 10(3): 326343.
28. Zhao, X., Liu, W., Liu, S., Zou, Y., and Chen, Q. Inverse design of an indoor environment by using a CFDbased adjoint method with adaptive step size for adjusting design parameters. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 2017, 71(7): 707720.
27. Cao, Q., Xu, Q., Liu, W., Lin, CH., Wei, D., Baughcumb, S., Norrisb, S., and Chen, Q. Inflight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China. Atmospheric Environment, 2017, 154: 118128.
26. Liu, Y., Cao, Q., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., Baughcum, S., Norris, S., Long, Z., Shen, X., and Chen, Q. Numerical modeling of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners on ground. Building Simulation, 2017, 10(2): 265275.
2016
25. Liu, W., Jin, M., Chen, C., You, R., and Chen, Q. Implementation of a fast fluid dynamics model in OpenFOAM for simulating indoor airflow. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Application, 2016, 69(7): 748762.
24. Liu, W., Jin, M., Chen, C. and Chen, Q. Optimization of air supply location, size, and parameters in enclosed environments through using a CFDbased adjoint method. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2016, 9(2): 149161.
23. Xue, Y., Liu, W. and Zhai, Z.J. New semiLagrangianbased PISO method for fast and accurate indoor environment modeling. Building and Environment, 2016, 105: 236244.
22. You, R., Liu, W., Chen, J., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., and Chen, Q. Predicting airflow distribution and contaminant transport in aircraft cabins with a simplified gasper model. Building Performance Simulation, 2016, 9(6): 699708.
21. You, R., Chen, J., Shi, Z., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., and Chen, Q. Experimental and numerical study of airflow distribution in an aircraft cabin mockup with a gasper on. Building Performance Simulation, 2016, 9(5): 555566.
20. Zhang, J., Long, Z., Liu, W., and Chen, Q. Strategy for studying ventilation performance in factories. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2016, 16: 442452.
19. Cao, Q., Liu, Y., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., Baughcum, S., Norris, S., Shen, X., Long, Z., and Chen, Q. Experimental study of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners. Building and Environment, 2016, 96, 6271.
2015
18. Liu, W., Duan, R., Chen, C., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. Inverse design of the thermal environment in an airliner cabin by use of the CFDbased adjoint method. Energy and Buildings, 2015, 104, 147155.
17. Liu, W., Zhang, T., Xue, Y., Zhai, Z.J., Wang, J., Wei, Y., and Chen, Q. Stateoftheart methods for inverse design of an enclosed environment. Building and Environment, 2015, 91, 91100.
16. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. Optimal air distribution design in enclosed spaces using an adjoint method. Inverse Problems in Science & Engineering, 2015, 23(5), 760779.
15. Chen, C., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. Comparing the Markov chain model with the eulerian and lagrangian models for indoor transient particle transport simulations. Aerosol Science & Technology, 2015, 49, 857871.
14. Dai, S., Sun, H., Liu, W., Guo, Y., Jiang, N., and Liu, J. Experimental Study on Characteristics of the Jet Flow from an Aircraft Gasper. Building and Environment, 2015, 93, 278284.
13. Chen, C., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. A Markov chain model for predicting transient particle transport in enclosed environments. Building and Environment, 2015, 90, 3036.
12. Chen, C., Liu, W., Lin,C.H.,and Chen,Q. Accelerating the Lagrangian method for modeling transient particle transport in indoor environments. Aerosol Science & Technology, 2015, 49(5), 351361.
11. Duan, R., Liu,W., Xu, L., Huang, Y., Li, B., Shen, X., Lin, C., Liu, J., and Chen, Q. Mesh type and number for the CFD simulations of air distribution in an aircraft cabin. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals, 2015, 67(6), 489506.
10. Jin, M., Liu, W. and Chen, Q. Simulating buoyancydriven airflow in buildings by coarsegrid fast fluid dynamics. Building and Environment, 2015, 85, 144152.
2014
9. Jin, M., Liu, W., and Chen, Q. Accelerating fast fluid dynamics with a coarsegrid projection scheme, HVAC&R Research, 2014, 20(8), 932943.
8. Shen, C., Liu, J., Liu, W., and Wen, J. Establishment and certification of an airliner experimental platform with the stable thermal boundary condition in a fullsize aircraft cabin. Journal of HV&AC, China (in Chinese), 2014, 44(7): 7580.
2013
7. Liu, W., Wen, J., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., Long, Z., and Chen, Q. Evaluation of various categories of turbulence models for predicting air distribution in an airliner cabin. Building and Environment, 2013, 65: 118131.
6. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. Current studies on air distributions in commercial airliner cabins. Theoretical & Applied Mechanics Letters, 2013, 3(6): 15.
5. Chen,C., Liu,W., Li, F., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., Pei, J., and Chen, Q. A hybrid model for investigating transient particle transport in enclosed environments. Building and Environment, 2013, 62: 4554.
2012 & earlier
4. Liu, W., Long, Z., and Chen,Q. A procedure for predicting pressure loss coefficients of duct fittings using CFD(RP1493). HVAC&R Research, 2012, 18(6): 11681181.
3. Liu, W., Wen, J., Chao, J., Yin, W., Shen, C., Lai, D., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., Sun, H. and Chen, Q. Accurate and highresolution boundary conditions and flow fields in the firstclass cabin of an MD82 commercial airliner. Atmospheric Environment, 2012, 56: 3344.
2. Liu, W., Mazumdar, S., Zhang, Z., Poussou, S., Liu, J., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. Stateoftheart methods for studying air distributions in commercial airliner cabins. Building and Environment, 2012, 47: 512.
1. Liu, W., Liu, J., and Ma, Q. Theoretical and experimental study of cleanliness in a clean room with a directional ventilation. Building Science, China (in Chinese), 2010, 26: 7683.
Conference Papers
2019
26. Xue, Yu. and Liu, W. 2019. Inverse Design of Built Environment by a Fast Fluid Dynamicsbased Genetic Algorithm. Proceedings of the 16th IPBSA International Conference and Exhibition (BS 2019), Rome, Italy.
25. Liu, W. and Chen, C. 2019. Integration of fast fluid dynamics and Markov chain model for predicting transient particle transport in buildings. Proceedings of the 13th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2019, 5 pages, Bucharest, Romania.
24. Wei, Y., Liu, W., Xue, Y., Zhai, Z., Chen, Q., and Zhang, T. 2019. Integrated inverse design of ventilation for an aircraft cabin. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 85, p. 05006). EDP Sciences.
23. Lai, D., Chen, C., Liu, W., Shi, Y., and Chen, C. 2018. An outdoor thermal comfort model for predicting the probability distribution of thermal sensation. Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality & Climate (Indoor Air 2018), July 2227, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2018
22. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2018. A novel diagnostic technology for air infiltration in buildings using an infrared camera, Proceedings of the Roomvent & Ventilation 2018 conference, Paper ID. 7, 349354, Espoo, Finland.
21. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2018. Inverse design of indoor environments by a fast fluid dynamicsbased adjoint method, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2018), Paper No. 11, 6 pages, Melbourne, Australia.
20. Zhao, X., Liu, W., and Chen, Q. 2018. Optimal design of indoor environment by CFDbased adjoint method with an area constrained topology. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2018), Paper No. 82, 6 pages, Melbourne, Australia.
19. Wei, Y., Liu, W., Xue, Y., Zhai, Z., Chen, Q., and Zhang, T. 2018. Inverse design of enclosed air environment by integrating three methods, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2018), Paper No. 55, 6 pages, Melbourne, Australia.
2017
18. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2017. Two coarse grid generation methods for fast fluid dynamics in simulating indoor airflow. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC 2017), Jinan, China.
17. Zhao, X., Liu, W., and Chen, Q. 2017. Inverse design of multiobjective problems for indoor environment using a CFDbased adjoint method. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC), Jinan, China.
2016
16. Liu, W., You, R., Xue, Y., and Chen, Q. 2016. Comparison and integration of CFDbased genetic algorithm and adjoint method for the inverse design of indoor environment. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air 2016), Paper 347, 8 pages, Ghent, Belgium.
15. You, R., Liu, W., Chen, J., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., and Chen, Q. 2016. Modelling air distribution in aircraft cabins with a simplified gasper model. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air 2016), Paper 99, 8 pages, Ghent, Belgium.
2015
14. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2015. Implementation of a fast fluid dynamics model in OpenFOAM with unstructured mesh. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T6679, 8 pages.
13. Chen, C., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. 2015. Accelerating the Lagrangian Method for Modeling Transient Particle Transport in Indoor Environments. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T6611, 8 pages.
12. Chen, C., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. 2015. A Markov Chain Model for Predicting Transient Particle Transport in Enclosed Environments. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T6612, 8 pages.
11. Yin, H., Shen, X., Sasanapuri, B., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., and Chen, Q. 2015. Modeling Environmental Control System for Aircraft by Coupling with Thermal Environment in Air Cabin. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T11040, 8 pages.
10. Cao, Q., Liu, Y., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., Baughcum, S., Norris, S., Wei, D., Long, Z., Shen, X., and Chen, Q. 2015. Experimental study of particle deposition in an airconditioning cart and the environmental control system of a commercial MD82 airplane. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T6987, 9 pages.
9. Liu, Y., Cao, Q., Lin, C.H., Wei, D., Baughcum, S., Norris, S., Yin, H., Liu, W., Long, Z., Shen, X., Chen, Q. 2015. Determining particle deposition in the environmental control system of a regional jet by empirical models. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T61039, 8 pages.
8. You, R., Chen, J., Shi, Z., Liu, W., Lin, C.H., and Chen, Q. 2015. Experimental and numerical study of gasperinduced airflow in an aircraft cabin mockup. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), Tianjin, China. Paper No. T6747, 8 pages.
2014
7. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2014. Validation of CFDbased adjoint method in inverse identification of air supply location, size, and parameters. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms (ROOMVENT 2014), Sao Paulo, Brazil.
6. Duan, R., Liu, W., Huang, Y., Li, J., Li, B., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., Shen, X., and Chen, Q. 2014. Comparison of mesh type for CFD simulations of air distributions in aircraft cabins. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms (ROOMVENT 2014), Sao Paulo, Brazil.
2013
5. Liu, W. and Chen, Q. 2013. An adjoint method for optimal ventilation design. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of the International Building Performance (BS 2013), Chambery, France.
2012
4. Liu, W., Wen, J., Shen, C., Lin, C.H., Liu, J. and Chen, Q. 2012. Experimental investigation of air distributions in the firstclass cabin of an MD82 commercial airliner. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2012), Boulder, Colorado, 618625.
2011
3. Liu, W., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., and Chen, Q. 2011. Simplifying the geometry of an airliner cabin for CFD simulations. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air 2011), Austin, Texas.
2. Wen, J., Liu, W., Mu, X., Lin, C.H., Liu, J., and Chen, Q. 2011. Thermofluid boundary conditions in a commercial aircraft for CFD simulations. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms (ROOMVENT 2011), Trondheim, Norway.
1. Chao, J., Mu, Xuan., Liu, W., Wu, H., Liu, J., and Chen, Q. 2011. Rapid construction of a threedimensional digital geometric model of an airliner cabin for CFD simulations. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms (ROOMVENT 2011), Trondheim, Norway.
